Finite State Machines and the State Design Pattern
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Summary: Make use of finite state machines and the state design pattern to create a Java "Cheap Calculator".
In this lab we will create the Graphical User Interface ("GUI") "Cheap Calculator" program which can do the four basic arithmetic operations: addition, subtraction, multiplication and division.
To see where we are going, download and run the demo As you can see this is a really cheap calculator: it misses a couple of digit buttons and does not support subtraction nor division. Nevertheless, it seems to calculate arithmetic expression in infix notation correctly. What do we mean by an "infix" expression? A binary operation is said to be in infix notation if the operator (e.g. +) is in between the two operands. There are also "postfix" and "prefix" expressions. The following table shows an example of each form of notation.
|Adding two numbers x, y together|
|Infix Notation||x + y|
|Prefix Notation||+ x y|
|Postfix Notation||x y +|
I am interested in writing a GUI application that simulates the behavior of a "cheap" infix calculator. As the user interface, this calculator has on the outside:
Inside this calculator is perhaps some kind of electronic circuit board capable of carrying out the actual computations. The GUI provides the only way for me to interact with the internals of the calculator. How do I want the calculator to behave? For a start, as I click on the digit buttons, I expect the calculator to accumulate the digits by concatenating them together and displaying the result on the display text field. But wait! What if I only click the digit '0' button? The calculator should not concatenate one '0' after another, should it? Run the demo and check it out yourself!
Now, try this: click '3', then click '+', then click '0' four times. This time around, clicking '0' results consistently in concatenating '0' to the existing display text. The calculator has changed its "click '0'" behavior after I click a digit button that is not a '0'. We say that the calculator has gone through a "state change" and behaves differently in each state.
Here is another example.
The behaviors of my calculator can be modeled as what is called a "finite state machine." What is a state? How many states are there? How do we go about describing the behavior of the calculator as it changes from state to state?
When you click on a button of the calculator, you are in effect making a request to the calculator to perform certain task. At any point in time, the internals of the calculator are in some specific conditions with specific values that would cause the calculator to respond in a very specific manner to such a request. The condition in which the calculator is in at any point in time is called the state of the calculator at that point in time. A state of a system is defined by the behaviors of the system. The user can interact with the calculator in only five ways:
To specify the behavior of the calculator, we must specify the calculator's response to each of the above five clicking events.
Reference the "state transition diagram" below for the following discussion.
When you first turn on the calculator, imagine that it is in some initial condition called a start state. Suppose, from the start state, you...
Beginning with one state, the start state, by analyzing and specifying the behavior of the calculator in response to the five distinct click events, we have inferred the existence of four distinct other states: accumulate state, compute state, point state and error state. We can repeat the same analysis on each of these states for each of the click events. We will not discussed them in details here. Instead, we summarize the state behaviors and the state transition in the form of a diagram shown below.
Traditional procedural programming implements the behavior of finite state machines by using numbers, loops and conditional constructs such as if and switch statements. In OOP, each state is an object with behaviors. A finite state machine is an object that has states. The machine holds a reference to an abstract state and delegates all state-dependent behaviors to its current state. This is the gist of what is called the state design pattern. We will apply the state pattern to model the cheap calculator. Here is the UML diagram of the complete system that we will be building:
Warning! As you progress through the lab, the directions will deliberately get less and less detailed, as you are expected to figure more and more of the process out on your own!
Study the above state transition diagram!
Get the downloaded GUI files to compile and run.
Originally published in Connexions (CNX): https://web.archive.org/web/20110415122613/http://cnx.org/content/m17257/latest/
© 2023 by Stephen Wong