Note: $cdk_dir == toplevel directory of NCSU CDK
This document contains the following sections:
In 4.4, the Diva rules are not part of the technology file per se but are compiled as separate files at runtime. When a library is created using the ``Compile tech file'' option, links are made pointing to the files divaDRC.rul, divaEXT.rul, and divaLVS.rul in the $cdk_dir/techfile directory. This way, users automatically see the effects of any changes made to the site-wide Diva files. When a library is created using the ``Attach to existing tech file'' option, no links are made, and the divaXXX.rul file from the attached tech library is used.
Extensive use is made of the
if( xxxAvailable ) construct
to conditionally include rules that affect optional layers (ie, layers
that are not common to all MOSIS processes). You can check
our page listing all the supported layers
and in which processes they appear.
In order to get the correct value of lambda and technology, SKILL
code contained in divaTechdesc.il is referenced at the
beginning of divaDRC.rul and divaEXT.rul. This code
works but is deficient in that it might not work when called from
ivExt(). This is because it uses
both rely on having a ``current window.'' If a user writes a script that
calls these commands and there is no current window, the verification
will fail. This needs to be addressed at some point.
Extraction is the process by which electrical connectivity and circuit elements are derived from the drawn layout. The CDK currently extracts the following circuit elements: [NP]MOSFETs, NPN BJTs, diodes, capacitors, and poly/elec/nwell resistors. (Parasitic resistance extraction is not supported.) The following is a list of recognized extraction switches followed by a brief explanation. Switches marked with an asterisk (*) affect the ``layout'' view, not the ``extracted'' view.
Convert [np]active to active
In an nwell process, convert active surrounded by nselect to nactive, otherwise to pactive. In a pwell process, convert active surrounded by pselect to pactive, otherwise to nactive.
For [np]active shapes, create an enclosing shape of [np]select
In the TSMC 0.25um process, all field poly must be enclosed by either n or p select. This switch creates this enclosure around all poly that is not already enclosed by select. Note that MOSIS now performs this step for you, so you shouldn't need to use this switch!
Extract interconnect parasitic capacitors. Capacitors below the
value defined by
(in local/skill/globalData.il) are ignored. To change
this value, set
x is the value in Farads.
Migrate text labels from layout to extracted view (in addition to naming the nets)
Do not assign values of as,ad,ps,pd to FETs or values to capacitors. Do not assign model names to FETs.
MOSFET source/drains are created by surrounding an ``active'' shape with either ``nselect'' or ``pselect'', depending on the desired MOS flavor. The gate is ``poly'' over active. Depending on the MOS flavor and process, the active area might need to be enclosed in a well. (Eg, PFETs need to be enclosed by ``nwell'' in an nwell process.) Variations include using ``elec'' for the gate (when allowed by the process) and ``[np]active'' for active, which gives better visual feedback than just active everywhere.
The four-terminal MOSFETs [np]mos4 from the NCSU_Analog_Parts library, not the three-terminal devices, are placed in the extracted view.
For processes that support them, high-voltage devices can be instantiated with the [np]mos_hv and [np]mos4_hv cells. They are made in layout just as a normal device but with ``tactive'' surrounding the active.
Vertical BJTs are extracted. The collector is ``cactive'' enclosed by ``nselect.'' The emitter and base are ``nselect'' and ``pselect'' respectively, both enclosed by ``pbase.'' All three terminals are further enclosed by ``nwell'' (which is actually the collector). Since different models are generally used for different geometry NPNs, unlike scalable MOSFET models, the rules do not extract any information about the NPN other than node names for the three terminals. Thus, to simulate, the user must edit the netlist and insert the correct NPN model name for each device.
If the Extract_resistors switch is on, the following structures are extracted as resistors:
Not every process has all these layers; as of now, for example, only the AMI C5N 0.6um (drawn) process has ``highres.'' For purposes of calculating resistance values, only the area of poly/elec/nwell actually enclosed by res_id/sblock/highres is considered.
Sheet resistance values are in $cdk_dir/techfile/layerDefinitions.tf. To change these values in existing libraries:
techLayerPropertiessection (it's probably at the bottom of the file) and either change the resistance value or add a line of the form:
( sheetResistance layer value )
layeris the layer name (e.g., nwell, poly) and
valueis the sheet resistance in Ohms/square. E.g.:
( sheetResistance nwell 1191 )
If the Extract_caps switch is on, the following structures are extracted as capacitors:
If the Extract_parasitic_caps switch is on, parasitic capacitors are extracted for all interconnect layers.
Capacitance values are in $cdk_dir/techfile/layerDefinitions.tf. See the section on resistors for instructions on how to change the values for existing libraries.
DRC is the process in which a layout is checked to see if it complies with all the rules set in place by the IC foundry to ensure an acceptable level of manufacturability. All the SCMOS design rules as described in the SCMOS User's Manual, are implemented. The CDK implements the ``submicron'' variant of the rules (SCMOS_SUBM).
The following DRC switches are recognized:
Use different pad/glass rules for area-array I/O (not MOSIS supported!)
LVS is the process by which an extracted layout and a schematic are compared to see if they are topologically equivalent, i.e., their netlists match. (It can also be used to compare two schematics or two layouts.) LVS options can be changed for a given library via the ``NCSU->Modify LVS Rules...'' menu. This overwrites the link to the site divaLVS.rul file in the library's directory with the appropriate rules.
The following options are available to set the LVS rules. For the most part they're self-explanatory.
Note that if users change the value of either NCSU_LVSCapSlack or NCSU_LVSResSlack, they must rerun the ``NCSU->Modify LVS Rules...'' menu to make the change take effect in the rules file.
Note: The Diva DRC and extraction rules are derived in large part from rules written at MIT by Jeff Gealow and Jen Lloyd.